Subgenus nestler (subgen. Neottia)
Greenless plants, devoid of leaves. Rhizome covered with densely fleshy, intertwined roots, which resembles a bird's nest. The shoot is covered with brown scabbards. The inflorescence is usually multiflorous. Flowers twisted 180 °, medium size. Warżka without jail, dissected at the top, concave at the root. Straight pillar, slender. The stamen is slightly bent, mobile. Lingual rostellum, quite big, with a semi-liquid catch on the top. Oval birthmark, little. Loose pollen.
This subgenus includes approx 10 species growing in Eurasia. Most of them are found in the Himalayas and southern China; only one species in Europe – forest nest or nest nest nest (Neottia nidusavis).
The brown-tinged flowers of the forest nest do not produce nectar or give off any smell that can be felt through our sense of smell. The cross-pollination is done by flies. If over 3-4 days, the insect does not remove the pollen mass from the flower, the rostellum and the clover dries up. The pollen grains are free to flow onto the birthmark. The transmission of pollen by insects in these orchids is rare. The color of their flowers usually does not stand out from the background, which are dried beech leaves. However, autogamy is very effective. Therefore, usually all flowers bear fruit. Occasionally, nests bloom underground. This only happens in very dry periods and then, when the rhizome of the orchid is deep below the surface of the soil. Under such conditions, the inflorescence cannot pierce the top one, often hardened layer. Interestingly, plants even under such conditions bear fruit, which clearly indicates self-pollination.
Forest nest (Neottia nidusavis)
Rhizome 3-7 cm length, quite massive, roots to 10 cm length, fleshy, many.
Momentum 15-50(60) cm h., strong, straight, cylindrical, peg, sometimes only above the inflorescence and mossy within it, usually light brown.
Leaves reduced, only their vaginas present, rarely a few centimeters long lamina with a jagged top, Brown.
Inflorescence 5-20 cm length, multiflorous, gestures, sometimes hemline loose, cylindrical to conical.
The lowest flowers are quite large, higher smaller, perianth petals closed down, the whole is brown in color.
Hypophysis 5-30 mm length, long lanceolate, spicy, often torn at the top, lowest leafy, higher reduced, membranous and small.
Peduncle 3-5 mm length, naked or rarely mossy, twisted.
Ovary 3-6 mm length, naked or sometimes mossy.
Warżka 7-12 mm length, slightly concave at the base, otherwise flat and straight, at the top, cut to 2 span patches 6-14 mm i 2-7 mm length, sickle-shaped to lingual patches, blunt at the top, between them a small one, narrow channel, running to the base of the lip.
Upper outer petal 5-6 mm length, 1,5-2 mm width, ovoid- for oblong lanceolate, blunt, naked or mossy.
Lateral outer petals of similar size, języczkowatolancetowate, spicy, more or less symmetrical.
Side inner petals as before, usually blunt though. The column 3-4 mm length, pale brown, yellow pollinia.
Fruit approx 10 mm length, bloated.
There are usually two varieties within this species: where. nidus-mis The whole plant is naked. where. glandułosa Beck Upper part of the shoot, peduncle and mossy ovary.
The forest nest is still a common plant almost all over the country.
It grows most often in various types of beech forests, hornbeam trees, sometimes also in the bushes, very rarely in open places, e.g.. in the clearings, on fresh soils, moderately fertile, usually indifferent. It is especially abundant in soils rich in calcium carbonate. Recently, it has been observed entering plant communities changed as a result of economic activity of man, e.g.. to parks or pine forests affected by dust emissions from cement plants.
The growing season usually begins in the second half of May. It blooms sometimes at the end of May, usually in June though. It sets the fruit in July. Owo-costany behave very often until the next year.