Broad-leaved kruszczyk (Epipactis helleborine)

By | November 7, 2017

Broad-leaved kruszczyk (Epipactis helleborine)

Rhizome with shortened internodes.

Momentum 18-100 cm h., strong, straight, less often thin, flabby and fragile, cylindrical, bottom naked, top short, roughly mossy, green to dirt-red.

Leaves 3-9, length. 3-15 cm, 0,5-5 cm times., spirally placed on the shoot, from almost round, through ovate to lanceolate, the lowest sometimes blunt, the rest are sharp, a bit rough on the nerves, arched, olive- to light green.

Inflorescence 3-35 cm length, usually multiflorous, loose to dense, cylindrical.

Flowers usually medium in size, wide open.

Broadleaf helleborine flower (Epipactis helleborine) a – upper outer lobe of the perianth, b – internal side, c – lateral external, d-e – lip from above, f – lip on the side. g – hypophysis, stalk and ovary.

Hypophysis 0,5-5 cm length, lancetowata, spicy, bent down.

Peduncle 3-5 mm length, twisted, mossy.

Ovary 6-10 mm length, a bit bloated, mossy, green, sometimes she ran red.

Two-piece lip, both parts fixedly connected; root part 3-6 mm length, 4-6 mm width, shell-like concave, green to reddish brown from the outside, dark brown to purple inside, shimmering; gable part to 5 mm length, do 4 mm width, from heart-shaped to ovate, spicy, with the top slightly bent down, at the root of 2(3) smooth or almost smooth nodules, all green to reddish.

Upper outer petal 6-12 mm length, 3-6 mm width, ovoid-lanceolate, sharp, peg.

Lateral outer petals of similar size and shape, slightly asymmetrical.

Side inner petals 4-10 mm long., 2-5 mm width, from wide elbows to ellipticals, sharp or blunt, usually more intensely colored than the outer petals.

Column approx 4 mm length, yellow to greenish, yellow pollinia.

The fruit with the stem approx 10-15 mm length, bloated, almost naked.

The broad-leaved kruszczyk is a very variable species. This applies to almost all basic characteristics; size, plant habit, color and size of flowers. Some color forms are very similar to rusty red helleborine (Epipactis atrorubens). However, they are easy to distinguish from it by their spiral foliage, a slightly mossy flower and smooth lumps on the lip. Seems, that the broadleaf helleborine is the ancestor of numerous self-pollinating species.

There are usually two subspecies:

ssp. helleborine

Flowers with pink or purple bloom. Large nodules, clear,

ssp. yiridis Soo

Yellow-green flowers, no pink or purple bloom. Very little or no nodules.

Kruszczyk broad-leaved occurs throughout the country.

It has a very large ecological scale: grows in fertile beech forests, mixed forests, poor and acidic forests and pine plantings, on coastal dunes and meadows. It even goes into, it would seem very unfavorable to orchids, man-made systems, like for example. roadside, drainage ditches or even rock rubble stores near the marble mines.

Blooms from June to September.

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